Paola Deyanira Sabillon, 22, was attempting to travel to Spain when her apparent nervousness aroused suspicion in the security line, airport police colonel Diego Rosero told journalists.
X-rays revealed a recent surgery on Sabillon's breasts and she confessed that an unknown substance had been implanted which she was meant to take to Barcelona, police added.
Authorities said a preliminary investigation showed that the surgery took place at a clandestine clinic in the city of Pereira, in western Colombia.
The implants were removed at a Bogota hospital where Sabillon is also being treated for an infection.
Some 300 tons of cocaine are produced per year in Colombia, long a hub for drug production and trafficking.